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Get Informed | Radium 226 and Radium 228

What are Radium 226 (Ra-226) and Radium 228 (Ra-228)?

Radium is a naturally-occurring radioactive metal that is present in the Earth's crust and can be found in plant tissue, animal tissue, soil, and bedrock. Radium is formed in an intermediate step in the radioactive decay series of uranium and thorium which end as a stable isotope of lead. Within the decay series of both uranium and thorium, alpha radiation is emitted in the transition between some isotopes and beta and gamma radiation at other steps. When Radium-226 decays, it releases alpha particles to form Radon-222 (Rn-222). When Thorium-232 (Th-232) decays, it produces Radium 228 that then releases beta particles to produce Actinium-228 (Ac-228) and so on (see Uranium and Thorium Decay Chains in our Water Science Basics section).

How Do Radium 226 and Radium 228 become a problem?

Radium is a radioactive element all of whose isotopes are unstable. Because of this instability the element decays and releases radiation in the form of alpha (Ra-226) and beta (Ra-228) particles and gamma rays. This radiation has been shown to cause bone, liver, and breast cancer in humans and animals. Radium is present in a number of different isotopes. The primary isotopes are Radium-226 (from U-238) and Radium-228 (from Th-232). There is also Radium-223 (from U-235) but since there is so little U-235 around, Ra-223 is normally not a problem. Radium is the immediate parent of radon gas, so, in addition to the radiation from the decay of the radium, there is the radiation from the decay of the radon it becomes plus the radiation from the radon daughters.

What are the Health Risks for Radium 226 and Radium 228?

Because they produce ionizing radiation, Radium 226 and Radium 228 are known carcinogens. Exposure to radiation from these radium isotopes has also been associated with anemia, skin and blood disorders, osteoporosis and other bone disorders, cataracts, kidney disease, liver disease, and an impaired immune system.

What are the Standards for Radium 226 and Radium 228?

The EPA MCL level is 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), but the MCLG is zero and the EPA confirms it is a  carcinogen.

"pCi/l= picocuries per liter, the most popular method of reporting radon levels. For those interested in the numbers, a picoCurie is 0.000,000,000,001 (one-trillionth) of a Curie, an international measurement unit of radioactivity." (Source)

Get Tested | Radium 226 and Radium 228

You can not see, smell, taste, or otherwise detect Radium-226 or Radium-228. There are meters that can be used to measure background radiation in your area, but there is no simple screening test. Regarding your water source, a potential problem with radionuclides could be related to a private water source, such as: a well or spring, surface water source down-gradient of a mining operation or a wastewater treatment plan that process production brine water, a region where the geology is characterized by igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock derived from igneous/metamorphic rock containing NORM, and rather old limestone formations.

Contamination of treated "city water", i.e., a community water supply system or a non-transient non-community system, by radionuclides is not likely because the EPA and state agencies require that the raw water sources be tested and standard water treatment processes would reduce the level of naturally-occurring radionuclides prior to entering the water distribution system.

Frequently asked questions on radium and groundwater contamination by USGS.

Level 1 | Observational Self-Testing

Level 1 Testing is done with simple observations that an individual can make with their own senses such as sight, smell, and taste. These observations can be readily apparent or can be observed as they change over time. In addition, accessible related information about the home can also be used to narrow down the cause of your water issues.

Observations for Radium 226 and Radium 228

The self-screening tests would include the following:

  • Are you located in an area with elevated radon in air levels and your water is from a local spring or well?
  • Are you located in an area where your deep water well is influenced by brine water or potentially vulnerable to a mining operation, oil/gas development, coal or coal ash, power plants using coal, geologic region with NORM in local bedrock, or a landfill?
  • You should test for radium if previous water quality tests showed an elevated level of uranium, radon, alpha particles, or beta particles.


Interesting article about natural radioactivity in groundwater.

Level 1 | Self-Test Web App
To do a quick and easy self diagnosis of your water, click the button below.
Launch

Level 2 | Do-It-Yourself Testing

Level 2 Testing is Do-It-Yourself testing that can be done in your own home using a Testing Kit. After you’ve done Level 1 Testing, Level 2 Testing can confirm if your observations are correct. If your test results reveal the presence of a contaminant that is cause for concern, you can either proceed to determine the best treatment (see below) or continue to Level 3 Testing.

Notes on Level 2 Testing for Radium 226 and Radium 228

There is no real-low cost meter or at-home test you can do yourself to check the level of NORM in your drinking water, but there are meters that can be used to check your food, air in your home, and personal radiation detectors.

Recommended Level 2 Tests
AmazonSeychelle 1-40401-W Radiological Family Water Pitcher

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

View
Crystal QuestTriple Under-Sink Water Filter, 8-Stage

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View
AmazonAquaBliss High Output Revitalizing Shower Filter

<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

View
Crystal QuestReverse Osmosis (R/O) Units

<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-cyanide">Note: Note: For cyanide levels that are less than 0.1 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to chloride or sodium.</div>

View
Filter WaterWater Softener and Whole-House Dual System (Code A27AC)

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View
AmazonUkoke RO75GP 6 Stages Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration System, NSF/ANSI 58 & IAPMO Platinum Seal Certified

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View
Recommended Products
AmazonST-AMAZ-S-01 | Seychelle 1-40401-W Radiological Family Water Pitcher

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

View
Crystal QuestST-CRYS-T-02 | Triple Under-Sink Water Filter, 8-Stage

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View
AmazonST-AMAZ-A-01 | AquaBliss High Output Revitalizing Shower Filter

<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

View
Crystal QuestST-CRYS-C-01 | Reverse Osmosis (R/O) Units

<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-cyanide">Note: Note: For cyanide levels that are less than 0.1 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to chloride or sodium.</div>

View
Filter WaterLT-FILT-W-02 | Water Softener and Whole-House Dual System

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View
AmazonLT-AMAZ-U-01 | Ukoke RO75GP 6 Stages Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration System, NSF/ANSI 58 & IAPMO Platinum Seal Certified

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View

Level 3 | Informational Testing

Level 3 Testing is done through an accredited Water Testing Laboratory. With Level 3 Testing, you can order a testing kit that is used to prepare your sample and submit it to the lab. By utilizing a lab, you have the assurance that a certified water expert had analyzed your water sample. If your test results reveal the presence of a contaminant that is cause for concern, you can either proceed to determine the best treatment options (see below) or continue to Level 4 Testing - Certified Testing.

Notes on Level 3 Testing for Radium 226 and Radium 228

There are a few high-quality low-cost informational water testing kits for radiological contaminants. At a minimum, we recommend a water quality test for uranium, alpha particles, beta emitters, and radon in water. If you never tested the radon level in your home, the first step should be to document the level of radon in your indoor air (see above). The other option would be to conduct comprehensive testing that includes the above parameters, plus radium-226 and radium-228.

Recommended Level 3 Tests
AmazonSeychelle 1-40401-W Radiological Family Water Pitcher

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

View
Crystal QuestTriple Under-Sink Water Filter, 8-Stage

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View
AmazonAquaBliss High Output Revitalizing Shower Filter

<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

View
Crystal QuestReverse Osmosis (R/O) Units

<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-cyanide">Note: Note: For cyanide levels that are less than 0.1 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to chloride or sodium.</div>

View
Filter WaterWater Softener and Whole-House Dual System (Code A27AC)

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View
AmazonUkoke RO75GP 6 Stages Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration System, NSF/ANSI 58 & IAPMO Platinum Seal Certified

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View

Level 4 | Certified Testing

A Level 4 Certified Test Test uses chain-of-custody with a water professional coming to your home to prepare the water sample and then works with an accredited laboratory in order to certify your test results. This type of testing not only gives you the highest level of assurance in the accuracy of your test results, but can also be used as a document in legal cases. For Baseline Testing, we recommend that you use Certified Testing.

Notes on Level 4 Testing for Radium 226 and Radium 228

If you are considering certified baseline testing for radionuclides, it is critical to understand what you believe is the source of the "contamination". Is the source natural or artificial, is it a NORM or a TENORM (technology enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material) ? If the source is linked to a permitted activity, such as a mining operation, natural gas development, coal processing plant, or landfill, it may be necessary to test for other water quality parameters that are related to the source and we would strongly recommend ordering at least a Neighborhood Environmental Report or an EDR Environmental Report with Geocheck.

Get Treatment | Radium 226 and Radium 228

For a general guidance on water treatment for radionuclides, we recommend reviewing the EPA Treatment Website. From this resource, the possible water treatment options include: ion exchange, Reverse Osmosis (RO/POU RO), lime softening, electrodialysis, and greensand filtration. The treatment processes more commonly used by large regulated water systems include greensand filtration and lime softening and coagulation, however some of these treatment methods do not directly target radium.

To develop a water treatment system for radium, it is necessary to understand the source of the radiation and confirm that it is radium and not some other radioactive compound. The first step would be a comprehensive water quality test and determination if there are any man-influenced sources of radiation that could be mitigated. In addition, it may be wise to treat your water for gross alpha even if it is below the MCL, please remember the maximum contaminant level goal is zero.

Depending on the form of the radiation and other contaminants, it may be possible to remove this radiation through aeration (radon gas), cation exchange, anion exchange, activated alumina, iron oxides, and/or reverse osmosis. Cation exchange resins can be used to remove up to 95% for positive ions like radium; whereas anion exchange resins, iron oxides, and a mixed-bed resin can remove both radium and uranium. (Source)

Short Term Treatment

Because the primary decay of radium-226 gives off alpha radiation and produces radon that can not penetrate human skin, but can enter the body through inhalation and consumption, the primary recommendation for relatively low levels of exposure with very little beta particles is to develop an alternative potable water source and, when bathing, make sure the space is properly vented.  Depending on the source of the gross alpha, it may be possible to install a point-of-use granular-activated-carbon (GAC) filtration system with a mixed resin system to provide a temporary barrier or to provide an alternative potable water source.

The primary issue with GAC is that radiation decay by-products will accumulate on the filter and become a source of radiation. There appears to be a number of point-of-use devices that will remove up to 99.99% of radiological contamination (Source) and, in an emergency, a distillation system should reduce the level of alpha and beta emitters. In some cases, a standard water softener may reduce the level of radium in the water, but we recommend conducting screening testing of the treated water to confirm that it does, indeed, do that.

Recommended Short-Term Treatments

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-cyanide">Note: Note: For cyanide levels that are less than 0.1 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to chloride or sodium.</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View

Long Term Treatment

Because the primary decay of radium gives off alpha radiation and produces radon that can not penetrate human skin but can enter the body through inhalation and consumption, the primary recommendation is a custom water treatment approach that includes the proper ventilation to remove radon gas. It may be advisable to install a point-of-use granular-activated-carbon (GAC) filtration system with a mixed-resin system to provide a temporary barrier, but this treatment system should be custom-designed and maintained by a professional.

The primary issue with GAC is that radiation decay by-products will accumulate on the filter and become a source of radiation. There appears to be a number of point-of-use devices that will remove up to 99.99% of radiological contamination (Source). When dealing with complex radiological issues, we strongly recommend working with a professional and we recommend getting the air and water tested.

Recommended Long-Term Treatments

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-cyanide">Note: Note: For cyanide levels that are less than 0.1 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to chloride or sodium.</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View

If radium activity is at over 5 pCi/L or there is a problem with uranium, alpha, beta, or radon - Recommendation: Seek Advice from a Local Professional (Customized Solution) and make sure to conduct long-term radon in air monitoring and conduct a Tap Score Extended Radiological Test. Contact Us

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