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Get Informed | Naphthalene

What is Naphthalene ?

Naphthalene is either a white solid or a liquid with a strong odor like mothballs and is classified as a semi-volatile organic compound (SVOC). It is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with a chemical formula of C10H8 (two fused benzene rings). Naphthalene is also called white tar, tar camphor, naphthalin, mothballs, and moth flakes. It is used to make dyes, explosives, toilet deodorants, insecticides, lubricants, PVC piping, and is a potential part of the chemical suite used in natural gas development. Naphthalene can dissolve to some extent in water and is normally only weakly attached to soil particles. It occurs naturally in crude oil and coal tar and can be found in diesel fuel, jet fuel, gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oils. Naphthalene is one of the least volatile volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but is one of the most volatile polycyclic aromatic (PAH) compounds.

How Does Naphthalene Become a problem?

Based on available information, naphthalene can have a short physical half-life in an oxygenated environment exposed to sunlight. It does not tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain but is temporarily stored in fatty tissue. You can be exposed to naphthalene by breathing in vapors, consuming contaminated water, and by direct skin contact with contaminated materials.

Note: - Exposure to naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, or 2-methylnaphthalene happens mostly from breathing air contaminated from the burning of wood, tobacco, or fossil fuels, industrial discharges, or moth repellents.

What are the Health Risks for Naphthalene?

If swallowed, naphthalene may cause liver and kidney damage and also may cause methemoglobinemia, i.e., bluish discoloration of skin, convulsions and death, severe digestive tract irritation with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and anemia and other blood abnormalities (Source). Naphthalene can be detected in the air at a concentration of about 0.08 mg/L and at about 0.02 mg/L in water. Most naphthalene is excreted from the body in about 3 days, but some may accumulate in fatty tissue.

What are the Standards for Naphthalene?

There is no federal drinking water standard for naphthalene, it is not regulated or listed as a Primary or Secondary drinking water standard by the EPA, and there is no federal maximum contaminant level in drinking water. The EPA has established a drinking water equivalent guideline of 0.7 mg/L (DWEL) and a Lifetime Health Advisory (LHA) of 0.1 mg/L or 100 ppb.

The EPA has also set these guidelines for naphthalene:

One-Day HAL: The level at which a child, drinking 1 liter of water in the course of one day, would not be expected to have any health problems related to naphthalene is 0.5 mg/L.

Ten-Day HAL: The level at which a child, drinking 1 liter of water per day for ten days, would not be expected to have any health problems related to naphthalene is 0.5 mg/L.

Some states have set drinking water limits for naphthalene: Wisconsin - the limit is 0.10 mg/L. New Jersey - the limit is 0.30 mg/L. New Hampshire - the limit is 0.02 mg/L.

Naphthalene should have an odor in your drinking water at a level that is below the EPA DWEL.

Get Tested | Naphthalene

Unlike many contaminants in drinking water, naphthalene is not potentially hazardous at levels or concentrations that do not impart a noticeable odor to the water; if you can’t smell it, it probably isn’t a problem. Naphthalene is associated with rather specific uses and applications and it is common to include it in a screening test when you suspect that the source of contamination is linked to a gasoline station, a fuel oil spill or storage, a petrochemical or fossil fuel source, a specific industrial source, or a landfill.

Your best course of action is to get your water tested for a range of semi-volatile and volatile compounds and to compile as much information as possible about your water supply source, well construction, surrounding land-use, and local geology.

Level 1 | Observational Self-Testing

Level 1 Testing is done with simple observations that an individual can make with their own senses such as sight, smell, and taste. These observations can be readily apparent or can be observed as they change over time. In addition, accessible related information about the home can also be used to narrow down the cause of your water issues.

Notes on Level 1 Testing for Naphthalene

Unlike many contaminants, naphthalene normally produces an odor at a level in water at 0.021 mg/L or 21 ppb which is well below the recommended EPA DWEL of 0.7 mg/L. It has a detectable odor in air at 0.084 mg/L or 84 ppb. Symptoms of exposure to elevated levels of naphthalene include but are not limited to: fever, blood in urine, difficulty breathing, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, confusion, jaundice, dark urine, and many others. (Source) You should be concerned about naphthalene if you suspect the source of contamination is from a petrochemical source, a landfill, insecticides, pest repellents, or a manufacturer that uses naphthalene.

Observations for Naphthalene

Naphthalene has a strong "mothball" or "Benzene-like" odor and is commonly associated with other petrochemicals.

Level 1 | Self-Test Web App
To do a quick and easy self diagnosis of your water, click the button below.
Launch

Level 2 | Do-It-Yourself Testing

Level 2 Testing is Do-It-Yourself testing that can be done in your own home using a Testing Kit. After you’ve done Level 1 Testing, Level 2 Testing can confirm if your observations are correct. If your test results reveal the presence of a contaminant that is cause for concern, you can either proceed to determine the best treatment (see below) or continue to Level 3 Testing.

Notes on Level 2 Testing for Naphthalene

We are not aware of an at-home screening test or a low-cost water quality meter that can be used for naphthalene, but if your water has a chemical/fuel-like, or mothball-like odor, you see a metallic sheen on the water that, after breaking it up, comes back together, or you are near a potential contaminant source that contains naphthalene, then you may want to conduct some additional informational or certified testing. Since naphthalene is excreted from the body by urination, it and its metabolites may be detectable as part of a urine analysis.

Recommended Level 2 Tests
Crystal QuestTriple Under-Sink Water Filter, 8-Stage

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View
Filter WaterBrondell Cypress Countertop Water Filtration System (Code A27AC)

<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>

View
Crystal QuestGAC Carbon Commercial Water Filter System

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration is < 0.080 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POE Device System Component</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bromate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.01 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L4-methyl-tertiary">Note: Concentrations < 40 ppb</div>

View
Recommended Products
Crystal QuestST-CRYS-T-02 | Triple Under-Sink Water Filter, 8-Stage

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View
Filter WaterST-FILT-B-01 | Brondell Cypress Countertop Water Filtration System

<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>

View
Crystal QuestLT-CRYS-G-01 | GAC Carbon Commercial Water Filter System

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration is < 0.080 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POE Device System Component</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bromate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.01 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L4-methyl-tertiary">Note: Concentrations < 40 ppb</div>

View

Level 3 | Informational Testing

Level 3 Testing is done through an accredited Water Testing Laboratory. With Level 3 Testing, you can order a testing kit that is used to prepare your sample and submit it to the lab. By utilizing a lab, you have the assurance that a certified water expert had analyzed your water sample. If your test results reveal the presence of a contaminant that is cause for concern, you can either proceed to determine the best treatment options (see below) or continue to Level 4 Testing - Certified Testing.

Notes on Level 3 Testing for Naphthalene

Not all informational water testing kits include naphthalene as part of the standard test package, but most include benzene and other volatile organic compounds that are commonly associated with naphthalene and a petrochemical source. Because naphthalene is also associated with the use of insecticides, you may want to consider a water testing kit that includes a Herbicide and Pesticide scan.

Recommended Level 3 Tests
Crystal QuestTriple Under-Sink Water Filter, 8-Stage

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View
Filter WaterBrondell Cypress Countertop Water Filtration System (Code A27AC)

<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>

View
Crystal QuestGAC Carbon Commercial Water Filter System

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration is < 0.080 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POE Device System Component</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bromate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.01 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L4-methyl-tertiary">Note: Concentrations < 40 ppb</div>

View

Level 4 | Certified Testing

A Level 4 Certified Test Test uses chain-of-custody with a water professional coming to your home to prepare the water sample and then works with an accredited laboratory in order to certify your test results. This type of testing not only gives you the highest level of assurance in the accuracy of your test results, but can also be used as a document in legal cases. For Baseline Testing, we recommend that you use Certified Testing.

Notes on Level 4 Testing for Naphthalene

If you need certified testing for naphthalene, it would be advisable to test for a broader range of organic compounds including: petrochemicals, other contaminants specific to the primary activity of concern, and other salts associated with the surrounding land-use activities.  It may also be advisable to order a Neighborhood Environmental Report. If you need help with finding a certified laboratory, please Contact our team.

Get Treatment | Naphthalene

Pretreatment will most likely be needed to ensure acceptable treatment by the primary water treatment system. The pretreatment systems may need to include microbiological control, turbidity/sediment reduction, and, if it is a petrochemical source, likely the oxidation and control of iron and manganese. Following the primary treatment system, it may be necessary to use a point-of-use filter to polish the water or to provide an additional barrier.

Periodic testing should be maintained after the treatment system is in place to ensure objectives are being met and the system is operating properly. Most systems will require maintenance on at least an annual basis. For naphthalene, the main water treatment system may include a combination of Aeration and granular activated carbon or a Carbon Filtration system (Source pg 31).

Short-Term Treatment

First, do not boil your drinking water. Naphthalene has a boiling point that is greater than water and therefore you can concentrate this and other contaminants in your water or release contaminants that have an airborne exposure route of entry into your body. If you believe there is a drinking water exposure to naphthalene or a related Herbicide, Pesticide, or insecticide, we recommend a comprehensive water quality test and that you consider the use of a bottled water source for drinking. Since some of these compounds may have a skin exposure, we would also recommend considering some carbon block or granular-activated-carbon point-of-use pretreatment systems on potable and bathing water as a precaution or developing a temporary potable water source.

Again, the first step would be to understand the risk, get your water tested, make fact-based decisions, and, in many cases, seek the advice of an expert. If the levels of volatile organics and pesticides are at levels that do not violate a drinking water standard, you could consider installing a countertop treatment system that meets NSF Standard 53 for VOC reduction or an NSF Standard 401 system for emerging contaminants.

Recommended Short-Term Treatments

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

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<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>

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<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration is < 0.080 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POE Device System Component</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bromate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.01 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L4-methyl-tertiary">Note: Concentrations < 40 ppb</div>

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Long-Term Treatment

The selection of a long-term treatment approach depends on many variables, but it is critical to understand the source of the contamination and other contaminants present, to mitigate the source as much as possible, to conduct a comprehensive water quality assessment, and, most likely, to install a multiple-barrier treatment system. If your drinking water is vulnerable to contamination by naphthalene it is likely vulnerable to the impact of other contaminants. After a comprehensive assessment and mitigation of the source, treatment is likely to include the use of an aeration and/or granular-activated-Carbon Filtration system and, in some cases, pretreatment for particle removal and disinfection and post-treatment for salts that may require Reverse Osmosis. In most cases, a customized solution will be required and it will be necessary to find a local contractor.

Recommended Long-Term Treatments

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

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<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration is < 0.080 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trichloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POE Device System Component</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bromate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.01 mg/L (POE Device System Component)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L4-methyl-tertiary">Note: Concentrations < 40 ppb</div>

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