Disinfection By-products form when disinfecting agents react with naturally-occurring organic compounds in the water that are being treated, potentially creating a combination of Trihalomethanes (THMs), Haloacetic Acids (HAA5), Chlorite, and Bromate, depending on the disinfection agent being used. This is typically a problem or concern with water that is commonly called "Public /City Water, Tap Water, Utility Water," water you get from a local water company or authority.This water has been processed and treated with an oxidizing agent to remove and control bacterial and pathogen regrowth in order to prevent illness. These disinfection by-products are not commonly a problem for untreated Private Systems/Well Water or spring water unless the source has been repeatedly shock-disinfected, uses a disinfection agent, or is impacted or influenced by runoff or water that contains Disinfection By-products.
Some Disinfection By-Products have been identified as Cancer Group 3 carcinogens. These are compounds that have been shown to cause cancer in animals which suggests that there is a high risk of cancer in humans. In addition, health studies and assessments show there is potentially a high risk of kidney, liver, and nervous system damage.