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Get Informed | Beta Particles

What are Beta (β) Particles?

Beta particles or beta emitters can be found in naturally-occurring radioactive material and from man-made sources. Beta emitters produce less ionizing radiation than alpha particles, but these particles can pass through the skin and if ingested or inhaled cause cellular and DNA damage although to a lesser extent than alpha particles. In addition to being naturally-occurring, beta particles are also associated with man-made radioactive materials associated with nuclear fission. Some beta-emitters can also produce gamma radiation.

Note - Radium 226, Uranium 228, radon, and tritium directly/indirectly emit beta particles in the decay series. (Informational Graph)

How Do Beta Particles Become a problem?

Exposure of the skin to high levels of beta particles can cause "burns" on the skin, like sunburn, and if inhaled or consumed, the energy from beta particles may damage cells or organs by breaking chemical bonds of critical molecules.

What are the Health Risks for Beta Particles?

Beta particles are carcinogenic; they cause damage to cells, organs, and DNA.

What are the Standards for Beta Particles?

The EPA has set a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for beta particles at a dosage equivalent to 4 millirems/year, but the MCLG is ZERO.

The combined MCL for Radium 226 and Radium 228 is 5 pCi/L or a MCLG of ZERO. Since different radionuclides decay at different rates, the EPA developed a resource that relates the relative concentration in pCi/L of a variety of man-made nuclides that would produce an equivalent dosage of 4 millirems. (Source)

"If your state says you are vulnerable to contamination from man-made radionuclides, you must take quarterly samples for gross beta emitters and annual samples for tritium and strontium-90 at each entry point to the water distribution system. The state may use a Running Annual Average limit (minus potassium 40) of less than or equal to 50 pCi/L" (Source)

Get Tested | Beta Particles

You can not see, smell, taste, or otherwise detect beta particles with your senses. There are meters that can be used to measure background radiation in your area, but there is no simple screening test. Regarding your water source, a potential problem with radionuclides could be related to a private water source, such as: a well or spring, a surface water source down-gradient of a mining operation, a wastewater treatment plant that processes production brine water, a region where the geology is characterized by igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock derived from igneous/metamorphic rock containing NORM, and rather old limestone formations. Because beta particles may be associated with man-made sources of radiation, these particles could be a concern because you are located near a nuclear power plant, chemotherapy medical facilities, or a landfill.

Contamination of treated "city water", i.e., a community water supply system or a non-transient non-community system, by radionuclides is not likely because the EPA and state agencies require that the raw water sources be tested and standard water treatment processes would reduce the level of naturally-occurring radionuclides prior to entering the water distribution system.

Level 1 | Observational Self-Testing

Level 1 Testing is done with simple observations that an individual can make with their own senses such as sight, smell, and taste. These observations can be readily apparent or can be observed as they change over time. In addition, accessible related information about the home can also be used to narrow down the cause of your water issues.

Observations for Beta Particles

The self-screening tests would include the following:

  • Are you located in an area with elevated radon levels in some of the houses in your area and your water is from a local spring or well? This is because some of the daughters associated with the decay by-products of radon emit beta particles (some emit alpha particles).
  • You are located in an area with shale gas development where the source rock includes Potassium-40, uranium, or thorium. This is more likely for black shale.
  • Are you located in an area where your deep water well is influenced by brine water or potentially vulnerable to a mining operation, oil/gas development, coal or coal ash, power plants using coal, a geologic region with NORM in local bedrock, or near a landfill?
  • Your water quality test showed an elevated level of uranium, thorium, strontium, or gross alpha.
  • You are located in an area with a history of nuclear testing.


Interesting article about natural Radioactivity in Groundwater.

Level 1 | Self-Test Web App
To do a quick and easy self diagnosis of your water, click the button below.
Launch

Level 2 | Do-It-Yourself Testing

Level 2 Testing is Do-It-Yourself testing that can be done in your own home using a Testing Kit. After you’ve done Level 1 Testing, Level 2 Testing can confirm if your observations are correct. If your test results reveal the presence of a contaminant that is cause for concern, you can either proceed to determine the best treatment (see below) or continue to Level 3 Testing.

Notes on Level 2 Testing for Beta Particles

There is no real low-cost meter or at-home test you can do yourself to check the level of NORM in your drinking water, but there are meters that can be used to check your food, the air in your home, and there are personal radiation detectors.

Recommended Level 2 Tests
AmazonSeychelle 1-40401-W Radiological Family Water Pitcher

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

View
Crystal QuestTriple Under-Sink Water Filter, 8-Stage

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View
AmazonAquaBliss High Output Revitalizing Shower Filter

<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

View
AmazonRadiation Water Filtration Straw® up to 25 gallons

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: BackPack/ Emergency Use</div>

View
Filter WaterWater Softener and Whole-House Dual System (Code A27AC)

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View
AmazonUkoke RO75GP 6 Stages Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration System, NSF/ANSI 58 & IAPMO Platinum Seal Certified

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View
Recommended Products
AmazonST-AMAZ-S-01 | Seychelle 1-40401-W Radiological Family Water Pitcher

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

View
Crystal QuestST-CRYS-T-02 | Triple Under-Sink Water Filter, 8-Stage

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View
AmazonST-AMAZ-A-01 | AquaBliss High Output Revitalizing Shower Filter

<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

View
AmazonST-AMAZ-R-01 | Radiation Water Filtration Straw® up to 25 gallons

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: BackPack/ Emergency Use</div>

View
Filter WaterLT-FILT-W-02 | Water Softener and Whole-House Dual System

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View
AmazonLT-AMAZ-U-01 | Ukoke RO75GP 6 Stages Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration System, NSF/ANSI 58 & IAPMO Platinum Seal Certified

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View
Neighborhood Environmental Report

Order a Neighborhood Environmental Report to learn about potential hazards in your community.

Level 3 | Informational Testing

Level 3 Testing is done through an accredited Water Testing Laboratory. With Level 3 Testing, you can order a testing kit that is used to prepare your sample and submit it to the lab. By utilizing a lab, you have the assurance that a certified water expert had analyzed your water sample. If your test results reveal the presence of a contaminant that is cause for concern, you can either proceed to determine the best treatment options (see below) or continue to Level 4 Testing - Certified Testing.

Notes on Level 3 Testing for Beta Particles

There are a few high-quality low-cost informational water-testing kits for radiological contaminants. Since some of the decay products of radon are beta emitters, you may want to consider documenting the radon level in your home. If you never tested the radon level in your home, the first step should be to document the level of radon in your indoor air (see above) and then consider one or more of the following. If you are located near a nuclear plant, landfill, or other source of man-made radiation, you may want to consider background radiation testing using a Geiger Counter. If the Neighborhood Environmental Report identified a specific site of concern, it may be advisable to order an EDR Environmental Report with Geocheck.

Recommended Level 3 Tests
AmazonSeychelle 1-40401-W Radiological Family Water Pitcher

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

View
Crystal QuestTriple Under-Sink Water Filter, 8-Stage

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View
AmazonAquaBliss High Output Revitalizing Shower Filter

<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

View
AmazonRadiation Water Filtration Straw® up to 25 gallons

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: BackPack/ Emergency Use</div>

View
Filter WaterWater Softener and Whole-House Dual System (Code A27AC)

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View
AmazonUkoke RO75GP 6 Stages Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration System, NSF/ANSI 58 & IAPMO Platinum Seal Certified

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View

Level 4 | Certified Testing

A Level 4 Certified Test Test uses chain-of-custody with a water professional coming to your home to prepare the water sample and then works with an accredited laboratory in order to certify your test results. This type of testing not only gives you the highest level of assurance in the accuracy of your test results, but can also be used as a document in legal cases. For Baseline Testing, we recommend that you use Certified Testing.

Notes on Level 4 Testing for Beta Particles

If you are considering certified baseline testing for radionuclides, it is critical to understand what you believe is the source of the "contamination". Is the source natural or artificial ? If the source is linked to a permitted activity, such as a mining operation, natural gas development, nuclear operation, coal/lignite processing plant, or landfill, it may be necessary to test for other water quality parameters that are related to the source and we would strongly recommend ordering at least a Neighborhood Environmental Report or an EDR Environmental Report with Geocheck.

Neighborhood Environmental Report

Order a Neighborhood Environmental Report to learn about potential hazards in your community.

Get Treatment | Beta Particles

For a general guidance on water treatment for radionuclides, we recommend reviewing the EPA Treatment Review Website. From this resource, the possible water treatment options include: ion exchange and reverse osmosis (RO/POU RO). The treatment processes more commonly used by large regulated water systems may include lime softening and activated alumina, greensand filtration, and coagulation/flocculation to address beta particles associated with a form of radium.

To develop a water treatment system for beta particles, it is necessary to understand the source of the radiation. The first step would be a comprehensive water quality test to determine if there are any man-influenced sources of radiation that could be mitigated. In addition, it may be wise to treat your water for beta particles even if it is below the MCL; please remember that the maximum contaminant level goal is zero. Depending on the form of the radiation, it may be possible to remove this radiation via mixed-bed ion exchange, activated alumina, iron oxides, and/or Reverse Osmosis. Cation exchange resins can be used to remove up to 95% for positive ions like Radium 228; whereas anion exchange resins, iron oxides, and activated alumina can reduce about 90+ % of uranium and a mixed-bed resin can remove both Radium 228 and Uranium. (Source)

Reverse osmosis has been shown to remove about 85 to over 90% of "radium" from water while RO can remove 87 to 98 percent of radium from water. It can also reduce the levels of uranium and alpha and beta activity, but we only recommend these devices as polishing filters or final barriers.

Short Term Treatment

Because beta emitters can penetrate human skin and enter the body through inhalation and consumption, the primary recommendation for relatively low levels of exposure is to develop an alternative potable water source for consumption and bathing and determine the radionuclide source of the radiation. Before taking any additional action, it would be wise to test the water for radon, uranium, and radium.

There appear to be a number of point-of-use devices that will remove up to 99.99% of radiological contamination (Source 1 and Source 2) and, in an emergency, distillation should reduce the level of beta particles.

Recommended Short-Term Treatments

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

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<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

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<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: BackPack/ Emergency Use</div>

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<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View

If the concentration is over < 4 millirems/year - Recommendation: Seek Advice from a Local Professional (Customized Solution) and make sure to conduct long-term radon-in-air monitoring. Contact Us

Long Term Treatment

If the water has a high level of beta emitters, it may be advisable to install a particle filtration system and determine the type of radionuclides that is the primary source of the beta particles. Depending on the radionuclide source, the system could be a mixed-bed ion exchange resin with the final barrier using a reverse osmosis treatment system. If you noticed, we used the words could and depending, because the proper system depends on your specific conditions. Your specific conditions require a detailed water quality analysis and working with a professional to develop a long-term solution. The NFS provides certification for systems that can remove some sources of beta emissions, such as Iodine Radioisotope Reduction / Radium 226/228 Reduction. (Source)

Recommended Long-Term Treatments

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If alpha concentration is less than 5 pCi/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If beta concentration is less than 4 millirems/year</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit.</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Uranium less than < 0.030 mg/L</div>

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<div class="product-note in-L6-benzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device) </div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-carbon-tetrachloride">Note: If the concentration is < 0.004 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chloroform-trichloromethane">Note: If the concentration of trihalomethanes is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-ethylbenzene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.03 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-methylene-chloride-dichloromethane-dcm">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-mtbe-methyl-tert-butyl-ether">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-tetrachloroethylene">Note: If the concentration is < 0.005 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-toluene">Note: If the concentration is less than 0.8 mg/L</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-xylenes">Note: If the concentration is < 1.0 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-atrazine">Note: If the concentration is < 0.001 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-alachlor">Note: If the concentration is < 0.002 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-glyphosate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.7 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-2-4-d">Note: If the concentration is < 0.07 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate">Note: If the concentration is < 0.006 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-chlorite">Note: If the concentration is < 0.8 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: Temporary Solution: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: Temporary Solution: If combined concentration is less than 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, and uranium are below drinking water limit (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-total-dissolved-solids">Note: Consider this treatment If the problem appears to be related to a metal or hardness.</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-trihalomethanes">Note: If the concentration is < 0.08 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-haloacetic-acids">Note: If the concentration is < 0.06 mg/L (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the concentration of alpha is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the concentration is < 4 millirems/year - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If the concentration of combined radium is < 5 pCi/L, alpha and beta are low, and radon less than 300 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: BackPack/ Emergency Use</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the beta  dosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226 + Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POE Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POE Device)</div>

View

<div class="product-note in-L6-gross-alpha">Note: If the alpha concentration is < 5 pCi/L and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-beta-particles">Note: If the betadosage equivalent is < 4 millirems/year and Radium 226+ Radium 228 is < 5 pCi/L - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-radium-226-and-radium-228">Note: If combined radium concentration is < 5 pCi/L and alpha, beta, uranium, and radon are low - (POU Device)</div>
<div class="product-note in-L6-uranium">Note: Final Barrier After Treatment Implemented</div>

View
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